美国Essay写作应减少重复用词的使用
      很多美国留学生在Essay写作时往往不善于对单词进行变化,不能将同一个意思用不同的方式表达出来,使得Essay显得单调乏味最终拿不到高分。小编建议大家应该尽量减少Essay写作中的重复用词。本文将为大家介绍这几种方法减少重复用词,实现用词多样化:

      方法一:同义词替换

      这是最简单的一种替换方法,当句子或段落中一个词出现太多次时,我们可以用单词的同义词来替换。举两个《经济学人》的例子:

      Just as drones can make up for poor roads,the theory goes,mobile phones can overcome a lack of well-functioning banks,portable solar panels can stand in for missing power stations and free learning apps can substitute for patchy education.

      为了表达“弥补,替换”这一意思,作者用了make up for/stand in for/substitute for这三个同义表达,这能够让句子更加变化多样。此外,a lack of/missing/patchy都能表达“缺失,不完善”的意思。

      As they vie for the next billion consumers to come online,Alibaba is taking on Amazon,Google is matched against Baidu and Tencent can prove its mettle against Facebook.

      对于“与……竞争”这一意思,作者在一句话里面用了take on/be matched against/prove its mettle against这几种不同说法,实现了用词多样。

      我们可以通过查同义词典来寻找同义词替换(词典介绍可见市面上有哪些优秀的同义词辨析词典?),也可以使用同义词网站

      网站上可以查到很多替换说法,比如搜索"complain",可以找到同义表达fret/sound off/take exception to

      需要注意的一点是,我们不能在同义词典中找到一个词就生硬搬进来,因为有可能会用词不当。为了保险起见,我们可以在词典中反查这些替换表达,学习其例句用法,确保单词使用符合语境

      方法二:词性变换

      美国Essay写作可以利用英语中同一个意思可能有名词、形容词和副词等形式来增加单词变化。举个例子:

      Online shopping is becoming more and more popular among young people.The main reason why it is so popular is better and wider access to the Internet.

      这里出现了两个popular,我们可以用popularity来对其中一个进行替换:

      Online shopping is growing in popularity among young people.The main reason why it is so popular is better and wider access to the Internet.

      或者:

      Online shopping is becoming more and more popular among young people.The main reason why it enjoys great popularity is better and wider access to the Internet.

      方法三:使用上义词和下义词

      所谓的上义词是指对事物的概括性、抽象性说明,而下义词是事物的具体表现形式或更为具体的说明。举个例子,fish,horse,snake,cat这些单词的上义词是animal,而animal的下义词则是fish,horse,snake,cat这些具体的例子。在写作中我们可以灵活使用上下义词进行替换。

      举个例子,在写关于人口老龄化的Essay中,要表达“老年人”这个概念,除了可以说elderly people/older people/senior citizens,还可以使用“老年人”的下义词retired people/retirees/pensioners/the over 60s/people over 60等等。

      又比如在关于年轻人的话题中,我们可以用students/teenagers/adolescents这些下义词来代替young people,在描述交通拥堵问题时可以用traffic problems这一上义词来代替traffic congestion/traffic jams,在描述手机时可以用上义词digital devices/gadgets来代替mobile phones这一具体概念。

      方法四:使用代词

      使用代词不仅能使句子之间的连接更加紧密,还可以减少用词的重复度。举个例子:

      Young children can be negatively affected by too much time spent on the computer every day.This is partly because sitting in front of a screen for too long can be damaging to both their eyes and physical posture,regardless of what they are using the computer for.

      这里使用their来代替young children's,使用they来代替young children

      我们还可以使用代词one来代替重复的单词,比如:

      Many graduates have to choose between working for a large company or a small company.

      句子可以修改为:

      Many graduates have to choose between working for a large company or a small one.

      另外,还有几个词也能起到代词的效果,比如former/latter/counterpart,举两个例子:

      (1)Belgian officials are discussing this with French officials.

      (2)Children in the city can enjoy better educational opportunities than children in rural areas.

      句子可以改为:

      (1)Belgian officials are discussing this with their French counterparts.

      (2)Children in the city can enjoy better educational opportunities than their rural counterparts.

      又比如:

      Of these two options,the former is less expensive,while the latter is less risky.

      (4)省略

      省略可以减少不必要的用词,使句子结构更加紧凑。句子中可以省略的部分包括名词、动词和形容词等。例如培根关于读书的名言:

      Some books are to be tasted,others to be swallowed,and some few to be chewed and digested;that is,some books are to be read only in parts;others to be read,but not curiously;and some few are to be read wholly,and with diligence and attention.

      这里是省略了be动词,还原后是:

      Some books are to be tasted,others(are)to be swallowed,and some few(are)to be chewed and digested;that is,some books are to be read only in parts;others(are)to be read,but not curiously;and some few are to be read wholly,and with diligence and attention.

      在比较句中省略手法也被大量使用,例如:

      Some argue that modern children grow up to be more independent and mature than in the past.

      句子省略了children,相当于:

      Some argue that modern children grow up to be more independent and mature than(children)in the past.

      方法五:将句式合并

      有时候我们也可以通过合并短句来避免单词重复,举个例子:

      Early in World War II,British workers broke a world record for building a bomber from scratch.This programme traces six of the workers.One of the workers was only 14 years old.

      句子可以合并为:

      Early in World War II,British workers broke a world record for building a bomber from scratch.This programme traces six of the workers,one of whom was only 14 years old.

      在Essay写作中我们可以综合以上几种方法减少重复用词,除此之外,多读外刊和美国原版书,积累地道英文中的多样化表达也是提高Essay写作技巧的重要方法。
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